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[중등임용고시(전공A)_2024] 기출문제 풀이 (2) Salience

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Read the conversation and follow the directions.【2 points】

T1 (Teacher 1): Hi, Mr. Lee. What are you reading?

T2 (Teacher 2): Oh, hello. It’s a book about the role of input in language acquisition. It’s quite fascinating.

T1: What does it say?

T2: Well, it introduces some empirical studies on the effects of _____________ in language development.

T1: Oh, I think I heard that term before. Can you remind me?

T2: The term is defined as how prominent or easy a certain input is to hear or read compared to other features around it.

T1: I see. So, it means the ability of a stimulus to stand out from the rest of the input.

T2: Exactly. Some features that are more prominent or easier may be more noticeable and will attract attention from learners.

T1: During classroom interaction, I always try to highlight the keywords or phrases in various ways, and it means that I’ve been doing things correctly.

T2: Yeah, you’re doing great. This book also says teachers need to increase the frequency of exposure because when students encounter certain words and phrases more often, they tend to notice them more effectively.

T1: I understand. I guess it’s also because of the functions of salience.

T2: You’re right. The more frequently specific vocabulary and grammatical patterns appear, the more likely they facilitate noticing and detection. So, it’s not just about teaching a wide range of vocabulary and complex grammar rules but also ensuring students encounter them regularly.

T1: Sounds good to me.

(Note: T = teacher)

Fill in the Blank Answer and Explanation:

Answer: "Salience"

Explanation: The concept of "salience" is central to the conversation. It is defined by T2 as the prominence or ease with which certain input can be heard or read compared to other features. This concept is important in language acquisition, as it relates to how certain aspects of language stand out to learners and thus are more likely to be noticed and learned. The theory behind this is that when linguistic features are made more salient or noticeable in the input (through repetition, emphasis, etc.), they are more likely to be acquired by language learners. This principle is applied by T1 in the classroom through highlighting keywords or phrases, an approach that is affirmed by T2 as being effective based on the book's insights. The conversation underscores the importance of salience in language learning, highlighting that frequent exposure and emphasis on specific language features can facilitate more effective language acquisition.

"Salience"는 한국어로 "두드러짐" 또는 "현저함"이라고 번역할 수 있습니다. 이 용어는 언어 학습에서 특정한 언어적 요소(단어, 문법 규칙 등)가 학습자에게 얼마나 잘 눈에 띄고 인식되는지를 나타내는 개념입니다.

예를 들어, 어떤 영어 교사가 수업 중에 특정 단어나 표현을 강조하기 위해 목소리를 높이거나 화이트보드에 크게 쓴다고 가정해 보겠습니다. 이러한 행동은 그 단어나 표현을 학생들에게 더 잘 눈에 띄게 만들고, 따라서 학생들이 그것을 더 쉽게 기억하고 학습할 수 있도록 도와줍니다. 이것이 바로 "salience"의 개념입니다.

이러한 방식으로, 교사는 학습자들이 특정 언어적 요소를 더 쉽게 인지하고 기억할 수 있도록 도와줌으로써 언어 학습 과정을 효과적으로 지원할 수 있습니다. "Salience"는 언어 학습에 있어서 중요한 요소 중 하나이며, 이를 통해 언어 습득 과정이 더욱 효율적이고 효과적이 될 수 있습니다.

Susan M. Gass, Patti Spinner, and Jennifer Behney: Salience in Second Language Acquisition

[예시]

  1. Objective: To enhance vocabulary and grammar recognition and usage through salience-based activities.

  2. Materials: Texts with highlighted keywords, audio recordings with emphasized phrases, interactive software or apps that highlight language features.

  3. Activities:

    • Highlighting Key Vocabulary: Provide reading materials with key vocabulary words highlighted. Discuss the meanings and usage in context.

    • Listening for Salience: Play audio recordings where certain words or phrases are stressed. Ask students to identify and note these elements.

    • Interactive Exercises: Use software that visually or audibly emphasizes certain language features in interactive activities.

    • Repetition and Usage: Regularly revisit key vocabulary and grammar points in different contexts to reinforce their salience.

  4. Assessment: Quizzes or tests that specifically focus on the highlighted vocabulary and grammar points. Oral or written exercises where students use these elements in new sentences.

  5. Feedback and Reflection: Discuss with students how the emphasized elements helped in learning and understanding. Encourage them to apply the same technique in their self-study.


[지도안 예시]

Activity Title: "Exploring the World of Relative Clauses"

Objective:

To improve students' understanding and application of relative clauses in English, fostering their ability to recognize and use them correctly in both written and spoken language.

Target Group:

Intermediate to advanced learners of English as a Second Language (ESL).

Materials Needed:

Handout with explanations and examples of relative clauses.

Worksheets with exercises.

Extracts from authentic texts (e.g., news articles, literature) containing relative clauses.

Activity Outline:

Introduction to Relative Clauses (15 minutes)

Begin with a brief lecture explaining relative clauses, including defining clauses (restrictive) and non-defining clauses.

Highlight how relative clauses can provide essential or additional information about a noun.

Use salient examples on the board or in a digital presentation.

Identifying Relative Clauses (20 minutes)

Distribute a worksheet containing sentences with and without relative clauses.

Ask students to identify and underline the relative clauses.

Include a mix of defining and non-defining clauses to reinforce the distinction.

Discuss the answers as a class, emphasizing why each clause is used and its effect on meaning.

Manipulation Exercise (20 minutes)

Provide sentences where students must insert appropriate relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) and, if necessary, commas for non-defining clauses.

This exercise emphasizes the form and punctuation of relative clauses.

Authentic Text Analysis (30 minutes)

Hand out extracts from authentic texts featuring relative clauses.

Students work in pairs to identify and analyze the use of relative clauses in context.

Discuss how these clauses add information and clarity to the text.

Creative Writing Task (25 minutes)

Ask students to write a short paragraph or story, using at least five relative clauses.

Encourage creativity, but emphasize the correct use of relative clauses.

Share and discuss some of the stories in class, highlighting the effective use of relative clauses.

Reflection and Feedback (10 minutes)

Conclude with a group reflection on the importance of relative clauses in English.

Gather feedback on the activity and discuss any lingering questions.

Assessment:

Evaluate students' understanding through their participation in discussions, the accuracy in exercises, and their ability to creatively apply relative clauses in the writing task.

This activity, rooted in salience theory, aims to make the grammatical concept of relative clauses more noticeable and memorable through various engaging exercises and practical application in authentic contexts.

Assessment Questions on Relative Clauses

Question 1

Identify the relative clause in the following sentence:

"The book that I bought yesterday is already on the bestseller list."

Answer: "that I bought yesterday"

Question 2

Choose the correct relative pronoun to complete the sentence:

"The artist, _____ works are displayed in the gallery, is a rising star."

Answer: "whose"

Question 3

Determine if the relative clause in this sentence is defining or non-defining:

"Mr. Johnson, who is my neighbor, grows beautiful roses."

Answer: Non-defining

Question 4

Rewrite the following sentence using a relative clause:

"I met a woman. She can speak six languages."

Answer: "I met a woman who can speak six languages."

Question 5

Identify the error in the use of the relative clause in this sentence:

"The smartphone, which it has a powerful processor, is very expensive."

Answer: Incorrect use of "it." The correct sentence is: "The smartphone, which has a powerful processor, is very expensive."

Question 6

Complete the sentence with an appropriate relative clause:

"The documentary _____ was quite enlightening."

Answer: Possible answer: "that we watched last night" or "which I saw yesterday"

Question 7

Decide whether the relative clause in this sentence is essential or additional information:

"The house that has a red door belongs to my aunt."

Answer: Essential (defining)

Question 8

Combine these sentences using a relative clause:

"There is a bakery. It sells the best croissants in town."

Answer: "There is a bakery that sells the best croissants in town."

Question 9

Identify the relative clause and its antecedent in the following sentence:

"The experiment, which was conducted by the students, won the science fair."

Answer: Relative clause: "which was conducted by the students"; Antecedent: "The experiment"

Question 10

Explain the function of the relative clause in this sentence:

"Julia, who loves to read, goes to the library every weekend."

Answer: The relative clause "who loves to read" provides additional information about Julia, characterizing her as someone who enjoys reading. It is a non-defining clause as it does not change the overall meaning of the sentence but adds extra detail.

These questions are designed to test a student's ability to recognize, understand, and apply relative clauses in various contexts, enhancing their grasp of this important grammatical structure in line with salience theory in language learning.

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